# Scikit Linear SVM plot decision boundary for input array of size n

I am currently performing multi class SVM with linear kernel using python's scikit library. The sample training data and testing data are as given below:

Model data:

``````x = [[20,32,45,33,32,44,0],[23,32,45,12,32,66,11],[16,32,45,12,32,44,23],[120,2,55,62,82,14,81],[30,222,115,12,42,64,91],[220,12,55,222,82,14,181],[30,222,315,12,222,64,111]]
y = [0,0,0,1,1,2,2]
``````

I want to plot the decision boundary and visualize the datasets. Can someone please help to plot this type of data.

The data given above is just mock data so feel free to change the values. It would be helpful if at least if you could suggest the steps that are to followed. Thanks in advance

## You have to choose only 2 features to do this. The reason is that you cannot plot a 7D plot. After selecting the 2 features use only these for the visualization of the decision surface.

Now, the next question that you would ask if `How can I choose these 2 features?`. Well, there are a lot of ways. You could do a `univariate F-value (feature ranking) test` and see what features/variables are the most important. Then you could use these for the plot. Also, we could reduce the dimensionality from 7 to 2 using `PCA` for example.

2D plot for 2 features and using the iris dataset

``````from sklearn.svm import SVC
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn import svm, datasets

# Select 2 features / variable for the 2D plot that we are going to create.
X = iris.data[:, :2]  # we only take the first two features.
y = iris.target

def make_meshgrid(x, y, h=.02):
x_min, x_max = x.min() - 1, x.max() + 1
y_min, y_max = y.min() - 1, y.max() + 1
xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.arange(x_min, x_max, h), np.arange(y_min, y_max, h))
return xx, yy

def plot_contours(ax, clf, xx, yy, **params):
Z = clf.predict(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])
Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)
out = ax.contourf(xx, yy, Z, **params)
return out

model = svm.SVC(kernel='linear')
clf = model.fit(X, y)

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
# title for the plots
title = ('Decision surface of linear SVC ')
# Set-up grid for plotting.
X0, X1 = X[:, 0], X[:, 1]
xx, yy = make_meshgrid(X0, X1)

plot_contours(ax, clf, xx, yy, cmap=plt.cm.coolwarm, alpha=0.8)
ax.scatter(X0, X1, c=y, cmap=plt.cm.coolwarm, s=20, edgecolors='k')
ax.set_ylabel('y label here')
ax.set_xlabel('x label here')
ax.set_xticks(())
ax.set_yticks(())
ax.set_title(title)
ax.legend()
plt.show()
``````

## EDIT: Apply PCA to reduce dimensionality.

``````from sklearn.svm import SVC
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from sklearn import svm, datasets
from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

X = iris.data
y = iris.target

pca = PCA(n_components=2)
Xreduced = pca.fit_transform(X)

def make_meshgrid(x, y, h=.02):
x_min, x_max = x.min() - 1, x.max() + 1
y_min, y_max = y.min() - 1, y.max() + 1
xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.arange(x_min, x_max, h), np.arange(y_min, y_max, h))
return xx, yy

def plot_contours(ax, clf, xx, yy, **params):
Z = clf.predict(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])
Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)
out = ax.contourf(xx, yy, Z, **params)
return out

model = svm.SVC(kernel='linear')
clf = model.fit(Xreduced, y)

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
# title for the plots
title = ('Decision surface of linear SVC ')
# Set-up grid for plotting.
X0, X1 = Xreduced[:, 0], Xreduced[:, 1]
xx, yy = make_meshgrid(X0, X1)

plot_contours(ax, clf, xx, yy, cmap=plt.cm.coolwarm, alpha=0.8)
ax.scatter(X0, X1, c=y, cmap=plt.cm.coolwarm, s=20, edgecolors='k')
ax.set_ylabel('PC2')
ax.set_xlabel('PC1')
ax.set_xticks(())
ax.set_yticks(())
ax.set_title('Decison surface using the PCA transformed/projected features')
ax.legend()
plt.show()
``````